APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY


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AASHTO: The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials is a national standards-setting body.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): Law prohibiting discrimination and guaranteeing disabled people access to public facilities.
Annual average daily traffic (AADT): The annual number of vehicles on a road divided by 365 days.
Arterial road: A moderate- or high-capacity road carrying traffic between or through urban areas.
Average daily traffic (ADT): Average number of vehicles on a road passing a specific point both ways in a 24-hour period.
Bicycle Level of Service (BLOS): Estimate of bicyclist’s comfort level based on several variables; BLOS ranges from a high of A to a low of F.
Bike Guide: Common name for the nationally-used AASHTO Guide to the Development of Bicycle Facilities.
Bike lane: A lane on a roadway designated by striping, signing and pavement markings for the preferential use of bicyclists.
Code of Virginia (1950): The statutory law of Virginia that confers legal rights and responsibilities on bicyclists.
Collector road: A road that carries traffic from local roads to arterial roads.
Complete street: A street designed and operated to enable safe travel for all users, including bicyclists.
Comprehensive Plan (or Master Plan): A long-range plan that defines the community goals for development, including transportation.
Contraflow: Travel in the opposite direction to traffic.
Cover sheet: The first sheet of a set of engineering drawings containing project information.
Cross section: A cut-through view of the road surface perpendicular to the centerline (see also profile).
Curb: A raised-concrete border forming a part of the gutter at the edge of the road, typically located at the corners of street intersections.
Curb radius: The form of the curved raised-concrete edge joining intersecting curbs.
Curb ramp or cut: A ramp leading smoothly from a sidewalk or trail to a street.
Design/build: The practice of using a single contractor to design and build a road project.
Design speed: The speed for which roadway elements such as curves are designed to allow vehicles to travel safely.
Detail drawings: Drawings that depict the planned road facilities. Also known as engineering drawings or plans.
Easement: A legal right to use land owned by another. Used sometimes for paths and utilities.
Final design: Preparation of final detailed engineering drawings for review and approval.
Gutter pan: Concrete channel next to the curb for carrying runoff, typically 1-2 feet wide.
Highway Capacity Manual (HCM): Contains computations for the design performance of traffic volumes on roads, published by the TRB.
Lane: A division of roadway intended for movement of vehicles in a single direction.
Left-turn lane: A lane dedicated to left-turning vehicles.
Level of Service (LOS): Estimate of the service quality of a road facility under certain operating conditions based on traffic delay and congestion, with A representing the best and F the worst.
Line of sight: A straight line from the eye of the driver or bicyclist to a potential object in the road ahead.
Local road: A road that typically has very low volumes, usually in residential or very rural areas.
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD): A document with standards for traffic signs, road markings, and signals, published by FHWA.
On-road (vehicular) bicyclists: Bicyclists who generally travel within a roadway in a lane or a shoulder in accordance with the rules of the road.
Operating speed: The speed at which drivers generally operate vehicles on a particular road.
Plan view: A drawing that provides an overview as if looking straight down on the project.
Preliminary design: The initial phase of design drawings and supporting documents, usually prepared to about 30-40 percent completion.
Profile: A cut-through view of the road surface parallel to a baseline such as the centerline.
Primary road: Two- to six-lane road that connects cities and towns with each other and with interstates; generally numbered under 600.
Public hearing: A formal meeting required by law to discuss a project during which citizens can provide comments.
Public meeting: A meeting in which information about a project is presented to the public.
Right-of-way (ROW or R/W): Land owned by a jurisdiction that is used for the road, services and adjacent access areas.
Road diet: Reduction in the number of through travel lanes on a roadway, usually to make room for a two-way left-turn and bike lanes.
Rumble strip: A road feature that alerts inattentive drivers by causing a tactile vibration and audible rumbling, transmitted through the wheels to the vehicle body.
Secondary road: Local connector or county road that is generally numbered 600 and above.
Shared lane marking (previously sharrow): An arrow-like design with bike symbol to indicate the preferred riding position for a bicyclist.
Shared roadway:
A roadway that is open to both bicycles and motorized vehicles.
Shared-use path: A paved bikeway physically separated from motorized traffic that may also be used by pedestrians and others.
Shoulder: The paved or gravel part of the roadway that is adjacent to the vehicular lanes of the road and is on the same level.
Sidepath: A shared-use path located next to a roadway.
Sidewalk: The portion of the right-of-way adjacent to the roadway but intended for use by pedestrians, usually made of concrete or asphalt.
Sight distance: The length of roadway or shared-use path that is visually unobstructed.
Speed limit (or posted speed): The maximum speed allowed by law for vehicles.
Stop bar (or line): A wide solid white line indicating the required position behind which to stop vehicles.
Striping: Road surface paint lines, which can be solid or dashed, white or yellow.
Striping plan: Plans showing traffic control devices including road striping.
Traffic calming: Set of strategies aimed at slowing down or reducing traffic volume.
Two-way left-turn lane (TWLTL): A lane between opposing travel directions that can be used by left-turning vehicles traveling in either direction.
Value engineering: An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of a project with recommendations for alternative solutions.
VDOT: Virginia Department of Transportation is the agency of state government responsible for transportation in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Wide outside lane (wide curb lane): The lane nearest the curb that is wide enough for a bicyclist to share comfortably with a motor vehicle.

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Guide for Reviewing Public Road Design and Bicycling Accommodations for Virginia Bicycling Advocates