APPENDIX A: GLOSSARY
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The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials is a national standards-setting body.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA):
Law prohibiting discrimination and guaranteeing disabled people access to public facilities.
Annual average daily traffic (AADT):
The annual number of vehicles on a road divided by 365 days.
A moderate- or high-capacity road carrying traffic between or through urban areas.
Average daily traffic (ADT):
Average number of vehicles on a road passing a specific point both ways in a 24-hour period.
Bicycle Level of Service (BLOS):
Estimate of bicyclist’s comfort level based on several variables; BLOS ranges from a high of A to a low of F.
Common name for the nationally-used AASHTO Guide to the Development of Bicycle Facilities
A lane on a roadway designated by striping, signing and pavement markings for the preferential use of bicyclists.
Code of Virginia (1950):
The statutory law of Virginia that confers legal rights and responsibilities on bicyclists.
A road that carries traffic from local roads to arterial roads.
A street designed and operated to enable safe travel for all users, including bicyclists.
Comprehensive Plan (or Master Plan):
A long-range plan that defines the community goals for development, including transportation.
Travel in the opposite direction to traffic.
The first sheet of a set of engineering drawings containing project information.
A cut-through view of the road surface perpendicular to the centerline (see also profile).
A raised-concrete border forming a part of the gutter at the edge of the road, typically located at the corners of street intersections.
The form of the curved raised-concrete edge joining intersecting curbs.
Curb ramp or cut:
A ramp leading smoothly from a sidewalk or trail to a street.
The practice of using a single contractor to design and build a road project.
The speed for which roadway elements such as curves are designed to allow vehicles to travel safely.
Drawings that depict the planned road facilities. Also known as engineering drawings or plans.
A legal right to use land owned by another. Used sometimes for paths and utilities.
Preparation of final detailed engineering drawings for review and approval.
Concrete channel next to the curb for carrying runoff, typically 1-2 feet wide.
Highway Capacity Manual (HCM):
Contains computations for the design performance of traffic volumes on roads, published by the TRB.
A division of roadway intended for movement of vehicles in a single direction.
A lane dedicated to left-turning vehicles.
Level of Service (LOS):
Estimate of the service quality of a road facility under certain operating conditions based on traffic delay and congestion,
with A representing the best and F the worst.
Line of sight:
A straight line from the eye of the driver or bicyclist to a potential object in the road ahead.
A road that typically has very low volumes, usually in residential or very rural areas.
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD):
A document with standards for traffic signs, road markings, and signals, published
On-road (vehicular) bicyclists:
Bicyclists who generally travel within a roadway in a lane or a shoulder in accordance with the rules of the road.
The speed at which drivers generally operate vehicles on a particular road.
A drawing that provides an overview as if looking straight down on the project.
The initial phase of design drawings and supporting documents, usually prepared to about 30-40 percent completion.
A cut-through view of the road surface parallel to a baseline
such as the centerline.
Two- to six-lane road that connects cities and towns with
each other and with interstates; generally numbered under 600.
A formal meeting required by law to discuss a project
during which citizens can provide comments.
A meeting in which information about a project is
presented to the public.
Right-of-way (ROW or R/W):
Land owned by a jurisdiction that is used
for the road, services and adjacent access areas.
Reduction in the number of through travel lanes on a roadway,
usually to make room for a two-way left-turn and bike lanes.
A road feature that alerts inattentive drivers by causing a tactile vibration and audible rumbling, transmitted through the wheels to
the vehicle body.
Local connector or county road that is generally numbered 600 and above.
Shared lane marking (previously sharrow):
An arrow-like design with bike symbol to indicate the preferred riding position for a bicyclist.
A roadway that is open to both bicycles and motorized vehicles.
A paved bikeway physically separated from motorized traffic that may also be used by pedestrians and others.
The paved or gravel part of the roadway that is adjacent to the vehicular lanes of the road and is on the same level.
A shared-use path located next to a roadway.
The portion of the right-of-way adjacent to the roadway but intended for use by pedestrians, usually made of concrete or asphalt.
The length of roadway or shared-use path that is visually unobstructed.
Speed limit (or posted speed):
The maximum speed allowed by law for vehicles.
Stop bar (or line):
A wide solid white line indicating the required position behind which to stop vehicles.
Road surface paint lines, which can be solid or dashed, white or yellow.
Plans showing traffic control devices including road striping.
Set of strategies aimed at slowing down or reducing traffic volume.
Two-way left-turn lane (TWLTL):
A lane between opposing travel directions that can be used by left-turning vehicles traveling in either direction.
An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of a project with recommendations for alternative solutions.
Virginia Department of Transportation is the agency of state government responsible for transportation in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Wide outside lane (wide curb lane):
The lane nearest the curb that is wide enough for a bicyclist to share comfortably with a motor vehicle.